CAS No. Request For Quotation. The username will be used as the login user name and retrieve the password. Properties Safety Price 53 Uses. Nitric acid Chemical Properties,Uses,Production Description Nitric acid is a colorless, corrosive liquid that is the most common nitrogen acid. It has been used for hundreds of years. Nitric acid is a mineral acid that was called spirit of nitre and aqua fortis, which means strong water. Fuming nitric acid is named because of the fumes emitted by acid when it combines with moist air.
Fuming nitric acid is highly concentrated and is labeled either red fuming nitric acid or white fuming nitric acid. Red fuming nitric acid, as the name implies, emits a reddishbrown fume on exposure to air. The color comes from nitrogen dioxide, which is liberated on exposure to air.
Chemical Properties Nitricacid,HN03, is a strong,fire-hazardous oxidant. Nitric acid, also known as aqua fortis, is used for chemical synthesis, explosives, and fertilizer manufacture, and in metallurgy, etching, engraving, and ore flotation. Chemical Properties Nitric acid is a colorless to light brown fuming liquid with an acrid, suffocating odor. Fuming nitric acid is a reddish fuming liquid. Fumes in moist air. Often used in an aqueous solution. Fuming nitric acid is concentrated nitric acid that contains dissolved nitrogen dioxide.
Nitric acid is a solution of nitrogen dioxide, NO2, in water and so-called fuming nitric acid contains an excess of NO2 and is yellow to brownish-red in color. Physical properties Colorless liquid; highly corrosive; refractive index 1.
History Nitric acid was known to alchemists in ancient times.
Cavendish in synthesized the acid by applying an electric spark to humid air. Earlier inLavoisier determined that the acid contained oxygen. InMilner prepared nitric acid from ammonia along with nitrogen oxides by oxidation of ammonia vapor over red-hot manganese dioxide.
InGay-Lussac and Berthollet established its composition. Nitric acid is one of the most important industrial chemicals in the world. Its largest use is in the fertilizer industry for producing various nitrate fertilizers. Such fertilizers include ammonium- sodium- potassium- and calcium nitrates. Other major applications of nitric acid are in making nitrates and nitrooganics for use in explosives, gunpowder, and fireworks.
Ammonium nitrate, nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, and trinitrotoluenes are examples of such explosives, while barium and strontium nitrates are used in fireworks.Nitric acid H NO 3also known as aqua fortis Latin for "strong water" and spirit of niteris a highly corrosive mineral acid.
The pure compound is colorless, but older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to decomposition into oxides of nitrogen and water.
Nitric acid is the primary reagent used for nitration — the addition of a nitro grouptypically to an organic molecule. While some resulting nitro compounds are shock- and thermally-sensitive explosivesa few are stable enough to be used in munitions and demolition, while others are still more stable and used as pigments in inks and dyes. Nitric acid is also commonly used as a strong oxidizing agent.
This solution has a boiling temperature of It is known as "concentrated nitric acid". Pure concentrated nitric acid is a colourless liquid at room temperature.
Nitric acid is subject to thermal or light decomposition and for this reason it was often stored in brown glass bottles:. This reaction may give rise to some non-negligible variations in the vapor pressure above the liquid because the nitrogen oxides produced dissolve partly or completely in the acid. The nitrogen dioxide NO 2 remains dissolved in the nitric acid coloring it yellow or even red at higher temperatures. While the pure acid tends to give off white fumes when exposed to air, acid with dissolved nitrogen dioxide gives off reddish-brown vapors, leading to the common names "red fuming nitric acid" and "white fuming nitric acid".
Nitrogen oxides NO x are soluble in nitric acid. This grade is often used in the explosives industry. It is not as volatile nor as corrosive as the anhydrous acid and has the approximate concentration of Red fuming nitric acidor RFNA, contains substantial quantities of dissolved nitrogen dioxide NO 2 leaving the solution with a reddish-brown color. Due to the dissolved nitrogen dioxide, the density of red fuming nitric acid is lower at 1. This fluoride is added for corrosion resistance in metal tanks.
The fluoride creates a metal fluoride layer that protects the metal. White fuming nitric acidpure nitric acid or WFNA, is very close to anhydrous nitric acid. It is available as Anhydrous nitric acid has a density of 1. Anhydrous nitric acid is a colorless mobile liquid with a density of 1.
As it decomposes to NO 2 and water, it obtains a yellow tint. It is usually stored in a glass shatterproof amber bottle with twice the volume of head space to allow for pressure build up, but even with those precautions the bottle must be vented monthly to release pressure. Two of the N—O bonds are equivalent and relatively short this can be explained by theories of resonance; the canonical forms show double-bond character in these two bonds, causing them to be shorter than typical N—O bondsand the third N—O bond is elongated because the O atom is also attached to a proton.
Nitric acid is normally considered to be a strong acid at ambient temperatures. This means that the nitric acid in diluted solution is fully dissociated except in extremely acidic solutions. Nitric acid can act as a base with respect to an acid such as sulfuric acid :. Since nitric acid has both acidic and basic properties, it can undergo an autoprotolysis reaction, similar to the self-ionization of water :.
Nitric acid reacts with most metals, but the details depend on the concentration of the acid and the nature of the metal. Dilute nitric acid behaves as a typical acid in its reaction with most metals. Magnesiummanganeseand zinc liberate H 2 :. Nitric acid can oxidize non-active metals such as copper and silver. With these non-active or less electropositive metals the products depend on temperature and the acid concentration.
For example, copper reacts with dilute nitric acid at ambient temperatures with a stoichiometry:. The nitric oxide produced may react with atmospheric oxygen to give nitrogen dioxide.Nitric acid.
For medical information relating to Covid, please consult the World Health Organisation or local healthcare provision. Simple Structure Advanced History. Comment on this record. Featured data source. Acid, Nitric. Acidum nitricum. Aqua fortis.Rydal 500 tent review
Azotowy kwas [Polish]. Engraver's acid. Kyselina dusicne [Czech]. Salpetersaure [German]. Salpeterzuuroplossi ngen [Dutch].
Nital [Wiki]. NO2 OH [Formula]. C [DBID]. D [DBID]. Decomposes in alcohol Alfa Aesar Experimental Density: 1. Fuming nitric acid is concentrated nitric acid that contains dissolved nitrogen diox ide.
Corrosive to metals. Click to predict properties on the Chemicalize site. Search ChemSpider: Compounds with the same molecular formula Compounds with the same skeleton Use this molecule in a structure search.HNO 3 Nitric acid lewis stricture is drawn step by step by using valence electrons of each element. There are no lone pairs on nitrogen atom and also there are charges on one oxygen atom and nitrogen atom.
You can see those signs in the following figure.
There are some steps to follow to draw the HNO 3 lewis structure and those steps are explained in detail in this tutorial.
Important: Drawing correct lewis structure is important to draw resonance structures correctly. Hydrogen is a group IA element and has one electron in its last shell. Nitrogen is located at group VA and has five electrons in its valence shell. Oxygen is a group VIA element in the periodic table and contains six electrons. Now we know how many electrons are includes in valence shells of each atom. Total electron pairs are determined by dividing the number total valence electrons by two.
For, HNO 3Total pairs of electrons are 12 in their valence shells. To be the center atom, ability of having greater valance is important. Then, from hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, which atom has the highest valence. Nitrogen can show valence five which is greater than maximum valence of oxygen two.
Therefore, nitrogen atom should be the center atom of HNO 3.Making nitric acid for gold and silver refining.
After determining the center atom and sketch of HNO 3we should start to mark lone pairs on atoms. After, marking electron pairs on atoms, we should mark charges of each atom. In the new structure of HNO 3charges are reduced. Therefore, this is the best lewis structure we can draw for HNO 3. Clearly they are different because there is one more oxygen atom in HNO 3. Therefore, there should be another bond between nitrogen and that oxygen atom. Steps of drawing lewis structure of HNO 3 There are some steps to follow to draw the HNO 3 lewis structure and those steps are explained in detail in this tutorial.
Find total number of electrons of the valance shells of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen atoms Total electrons pairs Center atom selection Put lone pairs on atoms Mark charges Check the stability and minimize charges on atoms by converting lone pairs to bonds. Total number of electrons of the valance shells of HNO 3 acid Hydrogen is a group IA element and has one electron in its last shell. Center atom of HNO 3 To be the center atom, ability of having greater valance is important.
Lone pairs on atoms After determining the center atom and sketch of HNO 3we should start to mark lone pairs on atoms.
There are already three N-O bonds and one O-H in the drawn sketch structure. Therefore number of total bonds in the sketch is four. Now only eight valence electrons pairs are remaining to mark on atoms.A negative number means the team is favored to win, while a positive number indicates that they are the underdog.Download gom player kuyhaa
This means the Cowboys are the favorites, but pay out less money if a bet on them wins. Try out an online to check your math when you first get started. Soon enough it will be second nature, but for now ask a friend or search for a calculator that fits your betting needs. You also get the money you bet back.
To calculate how much profit you make per dollar spent, divide the amount you are going to spend by 100. Multiply this number by the moneyline to see your potential profit. When betting on the favorite, you take less risk, and thus earn less. Like positive odds, you earn back your bet when winning.Retrieving the com class factory for component with clsid failed due
To calculate profit, divide 100 by the moneyline to find out the profit made per dollar spent. This is easiest to see with an example: If NY is playing Boston, and Boston is favored to win by an 4-point spread, then a bet on Boston only pays out if Boston wins by more than 4 points.
A bet on NY pays out if NY wins or if they lose by less than 4 points. If the favorite wins by the spread exactly, it is called a "push" and all bets are refunded. In the example, if Boston wins 88-84, then it is a push and no one collects a profit. If you see "half-odds" (a 4. Also known as the "juice," the vigorish is the commission charged for placing a bet.
Typically the vig is -110, and you read this number like a moneyline bet (see above). Sometimes there are different vigs for each team. If the score is exactly what the bookies set, then the bet is a push and everyone gets their money back.
Make sure to check this with your bookie first, however. The 175 should read -175. Yes No Not Helpful 5 Helpful 10 When I see a whole number alone on an odds sheet, what does it mean. Multiplying your stake by decimal odds gives your total return, not your profit(which is total return -stake).
To get to fractional from decimal, add 1. Yes No Not Helpful 36 Helpful 2 What does -13, for example, mean in football.
The "-13" means that a football team is favored to win by 13 points. For you to win the bet, the team must win by more than 13 points. Yes No Not Helpful 0 Helpful 0 What does it mean when the odds are nothing for either team. Answer this question Flag as. What does odds of 9 to 4 mean on a baseball team to win the World Series. How does one tell the odds of 2. What does the T and the O represent in betting.She was reportedly asked what her star sign was after her win, before the company allegedly agreed to pay up in 48 hours.
But who is the billionaire gambling boss who amassed a multi-billion pound fortune after founding Bet365 in a Portakabin in Stoke-on-Trent. She graduated with a first class degree in econometrics from Sheffield University and became manager of the family business when she was 22, expanding it to almost 50 shops. Ms Coates retains a majority stake in the company.
They have been given our 5 star rating in our bookmaker reviews section which means that they are one of a small group of online bookmakers who we consider rock solid.
This means your money is as safe as it can be with them and you can have confidence they pay out on winning bets. I use Bet365, the staff here at CheekyPunter. Interested in a specific aspect of this article. There are simply too many sports to list when it comes to betting options with markets from all over the globe. All the sports you can bet on at Bet365 are listed on their website or app and their new improved interactive platform allows you to quickly pull up odds on any sport into the main screen area whenever you want.
In my opinion another top feature is the way you can favourite different markets in their live section. I just clicked the star next to any market I wanted to add to my favourites and it was listed before the rest. A top quality feature, simple, yet very effective. You need a funded account or to have placed a bet in the last 24 hours to watch and geo restrictions do apply. The service is available to anyone who has a funded account with Bet365 or who has placed a bet in the last 24 hours (geo restrictions do apply).
I was able to access live streaming on both my desktop and mobile device. What I really like here is the ability to drill down even more into additional data on both sides and see things like top goalscorers, players with the most assits and any confirmed injuries. This presented me with with a pretty damn detailed overview of each runner and rider and including, where available, the option to watch how the horse ran in previous races.
The info available is partly powered by the Racing Post and includes stats like the horses previous performances, weight, age, trainer, jockey, previous odds, current odds, a mini review of the last run and a Spotlight from the Racing post. Any of the live scores apps or website are way better and much more intuitive. One thing worth noting on this front is that if I had a bet on an event then when logged in I could quickly and easily see the live score of that event on my betslip along with any cash out info.
For obvious reasons Bet365 are keen to make it as easy as possible for punters to move money into and out of their accounts. They do a good job of both and when compared to some of the smaller or newer online bookmakers actually offer way more options on this front.
I found getting money into Bet365 easy, quick and simple. They accept a range of major debit and credit cards as well as various different e-wallets and online payment options. All my deposits were free of charge and most processed instantly. Limits ranged depending on what deposit method I went for. I was able to pull up full list of deposit options by visiting the Bet365 website and scrolling to the foot of the page.
Here I found a link for withdrawals.Reviews continue to play a key role in establishing the public reputation of a local business, directly influencing how consumers feel about a business. There also appears to be a growing level of apathy or lack of concern about negative reviews.
This follows on from the trend of negativity seen above.
Consumers are still looking for reviews to be recent, frequently submitted and with a high average star rating. This surprising find suggests that the actual content of a review is becoming less important.Gross negligence example
This could be because time-poor consumers are moving away from fully reading reviews and are instead opting to make quick decisions based on the star rating and quantity of reviews. This extra click to read reviews could be putting consumers off delving deeper and encouraging them to make decisions based on the summary information within search results.
As seen below, the sheer quantity of reviews adds credence to star ratings, with consumers more likely to trust the average star rating of a business with many reviews. With consumers paying more attention to this than sentiment, businesses must consider what they can do to earn that coveted five-star reputation. This leap shows the growing importance of responding to reviews quickly and professionally, addressing any negative comments with further context or information on how the criticism has led to change.
This is likely to be tied to the growing number of consumers who expect businesses to have a significant number of reviews (see Q9). A poor customer experience could bring the average star rating down, which could lead to a business being automatically blacklisted by a significant number of consumers. Keeping on top of reputation means regular checks on ratings across different review sites.
Businesses must build a proactive plan to encourage positive reviews if they want to ensure potential customers are not put off. While a relatively small proportion of consumers expect to see a large number of reviews, failing to meet such expectations could mean losing out on a significant chunk of potential customers at the first hurdle. Consumers generally expect businesses to acquire reviews regularly, so those that struggle to get these may risk people losing trust in them.
Potential customers could also be turning to competitors with a higher quantity of reviews that back up the trustworthiness of the star rating. Consumers expect to see a significant number of reviews in order to trust the average star rating, and therefore to trust the business.
With recency a key concern for consumers, keeping the volume of recent reviews high and the average star rating glowing is an ongoing process and requires considerable effort to achieve. This shows that although trust in reviews is at an all-time high, review platforms need to do more to encourage faith in review scores and convince this minority that reading reviews is a reliable way of assessing the quality of a business.
For consumers to continue to trust online reviews as much as the recommendations of peers, the top review sites must focus on building an unbiased base of reviewers, and reacting quickly to those posting inauthentic reviews. Businesses, too, can limit the impact of unjust or false claims by closely monitoring reviews. This enables them to react more quickly, taking all feedback on board politely and professionally, and notifying review platforms of any fake reviews found.
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